Tim Brinton

Crear un equilibrio entre el Estado y el mercado

BERLÍN – La crisis económica y financiera que estalló en 2008 será vista, en retrospectiva, como un momento de transformación porque puso de relieve preguntas fundamentales sobre la forma futura de nuestros sistemas económicos. Estas preguntas no son tanto sobre el fin del capitalismo –como algunos lo perciben o desean- sino sobre las diferentes maneras en que se entiende el capitalismo en diferentes países.

Lo que hoy estamos presenciando es un cambio en los debates de los años ochenta. En ese entonces, Ronald Reagan, solía decir en broma: “Las nueve palabras más aterradoras de la lengua inglesa son: Trabajo para el gobierno y estoy aquí para ayudar.” Ahora que los gobiernos han gastado billones de dólares, euros, yenes y libras esterlinas en la estabilización de los mercados financieros y de la economía en general, esas palabras parecen provocar menos terror.

De hecho, la fe en el mercado ha disminuido mientras que la confianza en el gobierno y la regulación está aumentando. Después de décadas de consenso en el sentido de que el Estado debe establecer las normas y dejar tranquilo al sector privado, ahora el Estado es ampliamente visto como una fuerza benéfica que debe tener un papel activo en la economía.

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