Rich and poor Peter Parks/Getty Images

直面民主的全球威胁

牛津——在世界各地,民粹主义者正借助在全球化严峻现实中保护普通民众的承诺来吸引投票者。他们扬言民主机制完不成这项任务,因为民主体系忙于保护富人——全球化只不过强化了这样的做法。

几十年来,全球化承诺为所有人带来好处。在国际范围内,它促成了亚洲四小龙和金砖国家(巴西、俄罗斯、印度、中国和南非)的崛起,推动了非洲大陆经济快速增长,并促进了2007年前发达国家的繁荣。全球化还创造新机遇并促成了国内经济发展;但从2008年经济崩溃后,很多富裕国家已深陷紧缩;亚洲经济体增长放缓;金砖国家陷入发展停滞;并且很多非洲国家再次深陷到债务当中。

所有这一切都导致了日益严重的不平等,而不平等正在导致不满情绪滋生。伊曼纽尔·赛斯和加布里埃尔·祖克曼计算出美国的贫富差距已经超过了大萧条以来的任何时候,1%的最富裕家庭现在几乎把持着国家财富的一半。

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