Le retour de l’utopie

PARIS – Bien que la France ne revendique plus le devant de la scène de l’histoire mondiale, elle reste influente au-delà de ses frontières nationales. Depuis le XVIIIe siècle – depuis la Révolution, jusqu’au rôle épique de Charles de Gaulle pendant la Seconde guerre mondiale, la décolonisation de l’Afrique et la révolte estudiantine de mai 1968 – la France a souvent été un indicateur des profonds bouleversements sociaux de l’Europe. La récente élection présidentielle s’inscrira-t-elle dans le droit fil de cette tradition ?

François Hollande, un bureaucrate assez terne , a mené campagne en promettant d’être un président « normal », contrairement à Nicolas Sarkozy, le président sortant haut en couleur – et à vrai dire, contrairement aussi à tous ses prédécesseurs depuis l’instauration de la Ve République en 1959. La victoire de Hollande pourrait être le signe que les pays démocratiques sont devenus réticents à l’idée d’être gouvernés par des présidents ou Premiers ministres flamboyants ou charismatiques.

En fait, dans l’ensemble de l’Europe, aucune démocratie n’est aujourd’hui dirigée par une personnalité forte ou séduisante. L’Italie est toujours gouvernée par une administration intérimaire, mais dans ce pays également, les électeurs semblent s’être lassés d’être dirigés par un chef d’État excessif. L’Europe n’a plus de Nicolas Sarkozy ou de Silvio Berlusconi, mais elle n’a plus non plus de Margaret Thatcher, de Helmut Kohl, ou de José Maria Aznar. À une époque de crise économique et institutionnelle en Europe, tous les dirigeants européens semblent être, disons, extrêmement normaux.

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