De vuelta a la política de la desesperación cultural

Hace algunos años el historiador Fritz Stern escribió un libro sobre Alemania titulado The Politics of Cultural Despair (La política de la desesperación cultural). Utilizó el ejemplo de tres (ya olvidados) exitosos autores de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX para mostrar la profunda aversión de muchos alemanes hacia el mundo moderno, particularmente hacia la economía de mercado y hacia la política democrática. Para Stern, esto fue parte de la tierra cultural en la que floreció el nacionalsocialismo.

Mucho ha cambiado desde la era nazi. Al triunfo asesino y la derrota sangrienta de la política de la desesperación cultural les siguió un milagro económico que hizo de Alemania uno de los países más prósperos del mundo, con cerca de seis décadas de democracia cada vez más estable.

Sin embargo, en Alemania todavía hay rastros de una actitud que encuentra desagradable la economía moderna y amenazante la apertura de todas las fronteras a un mundo globalizado. El "capitalismo puro" y la "globalización" evocan imágenes horribles. Para citar la desafortunada metáfora que utilizó en un discurso reciente Franz Müntefering, presidente de los socialdemócratas en el poder, nubes de "langostas" capitalistas amenzan con caer sobre la gente indefensa y trabajadora.

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