文化的絶望の政治への回帰

今から数年前、歴史学者フリッツ・シュテルンは「文化的絶望の政治」という題のドイツに関する本を執筆した。彼は3人の(今は忘れられた)19世紀終わりから20世紀始めのベストセラー作家を例に取り、たくさんのドイツ人が持つ近代的社会、特に市場経済と民主主義政治に対する強い嫌悪を浮き彫りにした。シュテルンは、このような感情は国家社会主義を繁栄させた文化的土壌の一部分だとしている。

ナチ時代当時に比べると、様々なものが変わった。文化的絶望の政治による残忍な征服と血まみれの敗北のあとには、ドイツを最繁栄国のひとつに押し上げた経済的奇跡が続いた。また、民主主義は以来約60年間、常に安定の度合いを増し続けてきている。

しかし、ドイツ国内では、いまだに近代経済を不愉快に思い、グローバル化した社会に対して全ての最前線を開くのを恐れている声も聞かれる。「純粋な資本主義」や「世界規模化」は、恐ろしいイメージを呼び起こす。フランツ・ミュンテフェリンクが最近のスピーチで用いた不適切な隠喩を引用すれば、資本家「バッタ」達の群れが、無抵抗の勤勉な人々を急襲するように脅されている、となる。

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