回归对文化绝望的政治

若干年前,历史学家弗里茨·施特恩写过一本有关德国的书,书名是《对文化绝望的政治》。书中列举了十九世纪末二十世纪初三位畅销书作家(现在已经少有人知了),来说明很多德国人对现代世界,特别是市场经济和民主政治的切齿憎恶。施特恩认为,正是在这样的文化土壤之上国家社会主义得以滋生。

纳粹时代以后发生了巨大的变化。对文化绝望的政治经历了自杀式的疯狂和血腥的失败,随后诞生了经济奇迹,德国也成了世界上最繁荣的国家之一,近60年来德国的民主制度也日益巩固。

尽管如此,有些德国人仍然认为现代经济令人厌恶,向世界各国开放经济令人毛骨悚然。“纯粹的资本主义”和“全球化”唤起了人们可怕的遐想。引用执政的社会民主党主席弗兰茨·明特费林在前不久一次演讲中所打的一个不幸的比喻:成群结队的资本主义“蝗虫”马上会扑到毫无防备的劳苦大众身上。

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