robot waiter Pan Yulong/ZumaPress

Automatización, productividad y crecimiento

BERLÍN – Parece evidente que, si una empresa invierte en la automatización, su fuerza laboral –aunque posiblemente reducida– será más productiva. Entonces, ¿por qué las estadísticas indican otra cosa?

En las economías avanzadas, en las que muchos sectores tienen tanto el dinero como la voluntad de invertir en la automatización, el aumento de la productividad (representada por el valor añadido por empleado o las horas trabajadas) ha sido baja desde hace al menos quince años. Y en el período transcurrido desde la crisis financiera de 2008, el crecimiento económico global de esos países ha sido también escaso: tan sólo el cuatro por ciento por término medio o menos.

Una explicación es la de que las economías avanzadas han acumulado demasiada deuda y han tenido que desapalancarse, lo que ha contribuido a una tónica de subinversión del sector público y ha deprimido el consumo y también la inversión privada, pero el del desapalacamiento es un proceso temporal, por lo que no limita el crecimiento indefinidamente. A largo plazo, el crecimiento económico global depende del aumento de la fuerza laboral y de su productividad.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/YNQFgZ5/es;
  1. China corruption Isaac Lawrence/Getty Images

    The Next Battle in China’s War on Corruption

    • Chinese President Xi Jinping knows well the threat that corruption poses to the authority of the Communist Party of China and the state it controls. 
    • But moving beyond Xi's anti-corruption purge to build robust and lasting anti-graft institutions will not be easy, owing to enduring opportunities for bureaucratic capture.
  2. Italy unemployed demonstration SalvatoreEsposito/Barcroftimages / Barcroft Media via Getty Images

    Putting Europe’s Long-Term Unemployed Back to Work

    Across the European Union, millions of people who are willing and able to work have been unemployed for a year or longer, at great cost to social cohesion and political stability. If the EU is serious about stopping the rise of populism, it will need to do more to ensure that labor markets are working for everyone.

  3. Latin America market Federico Parra/Getty Images

    A Belt and Road for the Americas?

    In a time of global uncertainty, a vision of “made in the Americas” prosperity provides a unifying agenda for the continent. If implemented, the US could reassert its historical leadership among a group of countries that share its fundamental values, as well as an interest in inclusive economic growth and rising living standards.

  4. Startup office Mladlen Antonov/Getty Images

    How Best to Promote Research and Development

    Clearly, there is something appealing about a start-up-based innovation strategy: it feels democratic, accessible, and so California. But it is definitely not the only way to boost research and development, or even the main way, and it is certainly not the way most major innovations in the US came about during the twentieth century.

  5. Trump Trade speech Bill Pugliano/Getty Images .

    Preparing for the Trump Trade Wars

    In the first 11 months of his presidency, Donald Trump has failed to back up his words – or tweets – with action on a variety of fronts. But the rest of the world's governments, and particularly those in Asia and Europe, would be mistaken to assume that he won't follow through on his promised "America First" trade agenda.