robot waiter Pan Yulong/ZumaPress

Automazione, produttività e crescita

BERLINO – Sembra un fatto scontato che, se un'azienda investe in automazione, la sua forza lavoro – anche se ridotta – sarà più produttiva. Allora perché le statistiche dicono una cosa diversa?

Nelle economie avanzate, dove molti settori hanno sia il denaro sia la volontà d’investire nell’automazione, sono almeno quindici anni che la crescita della produttività (misurata in base al valore aggiunto per impiegato od ore lavorate) si è attestata su livelli modesti. Inoltre, negli anni successivi la crisi finanziaria globale del 2008, anche la crescita economica complessiva di questi paesi è stata scarsa, raggiungendo, in media, un massimo del 4% soltanto.

Una spiegazione è che, essendosi accollate troppo debito, le economie avanzate hanno dovuto ridurre la leva finanziaria, contribuendo a un modello di sottoinvestimento del settore pubblico e deprimendo i consumi e gli investimenti privati. Ma la riduzione della leva finanziaria è un processo temporaneo, che non limita la crescita per sempre. Nel lungo periodo, la crescita economica globale dipende dalla crescita della forza lavoro e dalla sua produttività.

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