man robot Anton Novoderezhkin\TASS via Getty Images

通往奴役的AI之路?

伦敦—来自全球的调查表明,人们想要安全的工作。与此同时,他们也一直梦想有安逸的生活。“机器人的崛起”让这些趋势之间的冲突变得清晰可辨。

对自动化可能造成的近期未来就业损失的估算在9%到47%之间,就业本身也变得更加飘摇。但自动化也意味着摆脱大部分强制工作,让亚里士多德的惊世骇俗的预言——有朝一日,所有必要的工作都将由“机械奴隶”完成——更加接近现实。因此,我们再一次面临着老生常谈的问题:机器是人类的威胁,还是解放人类的手段?

理论上,其中不必存在矛盾。将部分人类劳动自动化应该能够让人们工作更少而赚钱更多,一如工业革命以来的趋势。虽然世界人口增长了七倍,但因为机器强化的劳动生产率的提高,工作时长下降,真实收入上升。在发达国家,生产率——每小时产出——是1831年的25 倍。世界逐渐变得更加富有,而创造这些财富所需要的人类工作时长有所减少。

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