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Что случилось с Австрией?

МЮНХЕН – В мае Австрия едва избежала избрания президентом страны представителя ксенофобской Партии свободы. Эта партия сейчас даже оспаривает результаты голосования. Учитывая угрожающий характер популизма, а также его влияние на европейскую политику и пути преодоления кризиса беженцев, очень важно поставить точный диагноз австрийской болезни, так чтобы лечение в итоге не оказалось хуже самого заболевания.

Когда-то Австрия считалась более успешным соседом Германии, её экономика была одной из самых быстрорастущих в Европе. Однако после 2012 года экономика страны начала хворать: в прошлом году рост ВВП составил мизерные 0,7% (только у Греции и Финляндии этот показатель оказался хуже). При этом в Австрии резко подскочил уровень безработицы – с 5% в 2010 году до 10% сегодня.

Истоки подобного развития событий кроются в том, как Австрия развивала отношения с Центральной и Восточной Европой после падения коммунизма. Поначалу Австрия серьёзно выиграла от расширения Евросоюза на восток. Объёмы международной торговли возросли, австрийские компании начали активно инвестировать в этот регион, австрийские банки стали открывать там филиалы, финансируя модернизацию этих стран. Всё это было очень хорошо для бизнеса, и австрийская экономика быстро росла.

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