Joe Klamar/ Getty Images

Co se děje s Rakouskem?

MNICHOV – V květnu se Rakousko jen o vlas vyhnulo zvolení prezidenta z xenofobní Svobodné strany Rakouska. Svobodná strana dnes samozřejmě tento výsledek zpochybňuje. Vzhledem ke znepokojivé povaze problému populismu a jeho důsledkům pro evropskou politiku a zvládání uprchlické krize je důležité stanovit diagnózu, co Rakousko trápí, aby léčba nakonec nebyla horší než nemoc samotná.

Rakousko bylo kdysi opěvováno jako úspěšnější soused Německa a jedna z nejrychleji rostoucích evropských zemí. Jeho ekonomika však od roku 2012 klopýtá a HDP v loňském roce vzrostl o skrovných 0,7%; pouze Řecko a Finsko dosáhly horšího výsledku. A míra nezaměstnanosti se v Rakousku vyšplhala z 5% v roce 2010 na dnešních 10%.

Tento vývoj událostí má původ v tom, jak se Rakousko po pádu komunismu angažovalo ve střední a východní Evropě. Z rozšíření Evropské unie na východ Rakousko zpočátku těžilo. Mezinárodní obchod se prudce zvýšil, rakouské firmy mohutně investovaly v regionu, rakouské banky tam otevřely pobočky a financovaly modernizaci dotyčných zemí. To vše prospívalo podnikání a rakouská ekonomika rychle rostla.

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