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奥地利怎么了?

发自慕尼黑——上个月,奥地利人差一点就将一位持排外主义立场的奥地利自由党候选人为总统。事实上自由党依然在质疑这一败选结果。鉴于民粹主义挑战令人担忧的本质,及其对欧洲政治和难民危机处理的影响,要紧的事情莫过于搞清楚奥地利究竟得了什么病,好让治疗方案不至于最终变得比疾病本身更糟。

奥地利曾一度被誉为比德国更成功的邻邦,欧洲增长最快的国家之一。但其经济自2012年以来逐渐放缓,GDP同比去年只实现了0.7%的微薄增长;只比垫底的希腊和芬兰好一点,而失业率则从2010年的5%飙升到当前的10%。

这些发展要从奥地利如何与共产主义倒台后的中东欧国家相处说起。起初奥地利从欧盟东扩中受益。国际贸易额猛增,奥地利公司在该地区投入巨资,该国各大银行纷纷开设当地分支机构,为这些国家的现代化提供融资。所有这一切都是非常有利于企业经营,令奥地利经济迅速发展。

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