La pandemia de la austeridad

NUEVA YORK – En las reuniones de la primavera de este año del Fondo Monetario Internacional/Banco Mundial, celebradas en Washington, D.C., el FMI instó a los países europeos a relajar sus políticas de austeridad y centrarse en la inversión, abandonando la retórica del pasado, pero en los pasillos de esas dos instituciones multilaterales se habló de que se trataba de un doble rasero.

En realidad, la mayoría de los países están reduciendo el gasto público… con el apoyo del FMI. Así, pues, justo cuando algunos países septentrionales están empezando a poner en tela de juicio la prescripción de austeridad, sus homólogos meridionales (incluidos los países de la Europa meridional) están adoptando cada vez más medidas de ajuste fiscal.

Según las proyecciones del FMI, de los 119 gobiernos que están reduciendo sus presupuestos para 2013 (respecto del PIB), las tres cuartas partes son países en desarrollo (incluidos 21 de renta baja y 68 de renta media). La consolidación fiscal afecta a un 80 por ciento, aproximadamente, de los ciudadanos de los países en desarrollo y se espera que sus repercusiones se intensifiquen constantemente hasta 2015. Durante ese período, la magnitud de la contracción será importante, pues se espera que una cuarta parte, aproximadamente, de todos los países en desarrollo reduzcan el gasto por debajo de los niveles anteriores a la crisis.

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