A pandemia de austeridade

NOVA IORQUE – Nas reuniões de Primavera deste ano do Fundo Monetário Internacional/Banco Mundial, em Washington, DC, o FMI exigiu aos países europeus para facilitarem as suas políticas de austeridade e concentrarem-se no investimento, assinalando uma mudança na retórica do passado. Mas, nos corredores dessas duas instituições multilaterais, a conversa era de critérios dúbios.

Na verdade, a maioria dos países está a cortar nas despesas públicas – com o apoio do FMI. Deste modo, como já acontece com alguns países do Norte que começam a questionar a prescrição da austeridade, os seus homólogos do Sul (incluindo países do Sul da Europa) estão a adoptar cada vez mais medidas de ajustamento orçamental.

De acordo com as projecções do FMI, dos 119 governos que estão a reduzir os seus orçamentos de 2013 (em relação ao PIB), três quartos pertencem a países em desenvolvimento (incluindo 21 países de baixo rendimento e 68 de médio rendimento). A consolidação orçamental afecta cerca de 80% dos cidadãos de países em desenvolvimento e espera-se que o seu impacto se intensifique firmemente ao longo de 2015. Durante este período, a magnitude da contracção será significativa, esperando-se que aproximadamente um quarto de todos os países em desenvolvimento corte nas despesas abaixo dos níveis pré-crise.

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