La Pandemia dell’Austerità

NEW YORK – Nel corso del meeting di primavera di quest’anno tra il Fondo Monetario Internazionale e la Banca Mondiale, tenuto a Washington DC, il FMI ha invitato i paesi europei ad alleggerire le politiche di austerità e a concentrarsi sugli investimenti, evidenziando uno spostamento dalla retorica del passato. Ma, voci di corridoio riguardanti le due istituzioni multilaterali parlano di due pesi e due misure.

In realtà, nella maggior parte dei paesi è in atto il taglio delle spese pubbliche - con il sostegno del Fondo Monetario Internazionale. Dunque, seppure alcuni paesi del nord cominciano a mettere in discussione la prescrizione dell’austerità, le loro controparti del sud (compresi i paesi dell’Europa meridionale) adottano sempre più misure di regolazione fiscale.

Secondo le proiezioni del FMI, dei 119 governi che vanno riducendosi il budget del 2013 (rispetto al PIL), i tre quarti appartengono a paesi in via di sviluppo (tra cui 21 paesi a basso reddito e 68 a medio reddito). Il consolidamento fiscale colpisce circa l’80% dei cittadini dei paesi in via di sviluppo, e si prevede che il suo impatto si intensifichi costantemente fino al 2015. Durante questo periodo, l’entità della contrazione sarà significativa, infatti si prevede che circa un quarto di tutti i paesi in via di sviluppo taglieranno le spese al di sotto dei livelli pre-crisi.

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