Die Austeritätspandemie

NEW YORK – Anlässlich der diesjährigen Frühjahrstagungen des Internationalen Währungsfonds und der Weltbank in Washington, DC forderte der IWF, entgegen seiner bisherigen Maxime, die europäischen Länder auf, ihre Sparpolitik zu lockern und sich auf Investitionen zu konzentrieren. Doch hinter vorgehaltener Hand sprach man bei beiden multilateralen Institutionen von Doppelmoral.

Tatsächlich werden in den meisten Ländern die öffentlichen Ausgaben gekürzt – mit Unterstützung des IWF. Obwohl man in manchen nördlichen Ländern beginnt, die Vorgaben der Sparpolitik in Zweifel zu ziehen, ergreift man weiter südlich (auch in südeuropäischen Ländern) zunehmend haushaltspolitische Anpassungsmaßnahmen.

Laut Prognosen des IWF handelt es sich bei drei Viertel der 119 Länder, die im Jahr 2013 ihre Haushalte (im Verhältnis zum BIP) verringern, um Entwicklungsländer (21 Länder mit geringem Einkommen und 68 Länder mit mittlerem Einkommen). Geschätzte 80 Prozent der Bürger in Entwicklungsländern sind von der Haushaltskonsolidierung betroffen und deren Auswirkungen werden sich erwartungsgemäß bis 2015 noch intensivieren. In dieser Zeit wird es zu einer durchaus erheblichen wirtschaftlichen Kontraktion kommen, wobei etwa ein Viertel aller Entwicklungsländer die Ausgaben voraussichtlich auf Vorkrisenniveau senken werden.

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