Эвтаназия – от «Следует ли нам это делать?» до «Кто должен это делать?»

В прошлом намеренное приближение смерти любого человека всегда считалось преступлением, независимо от обстоятельств. Но отношение общества к этому с тех пор изменилось. Оказание помощи человеку, который настойчиво требует, чтобы ему помогли умереть, все больше считается оправданным действием, особенно если рассматривать это в контексте смертельных заболеваний. Этот факт постоянно отражается в проводимых в европеизированных странах опросах общественного мнения.

Однако законодательные органы все еще проявляют осторожность в отношении возможных изменений в законодательстве на этот счет. До сих пор только в Голландии, Бельгии и штате Орегон США такие недвусмысленные законы были введены в действие. Но серьезные политические дискуссии о внесении подобных изменений в закон идут сейчас во многих странах, включая США, Южную Африку и Австралию.

И по мере того, как жесткая оппозиция к регулируемой законом эвтаназии слабеет, на передний план выходит вопрос фактической применимости. Конечно же, существует вопрос относительно того, кто может рассчитывать на эвтаназию. Должно ли это быть только в случае смертельных заболеваний? Или же, например, это допустимо на ранних стадиях болезни Альцгеймера? Или же это может применяться в случае любых серьезных и неизлечимых заболеваний или инвалидности? И как быть с людьми, у которых желание умереть, совсем не связано с их медицинским состоянием?

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