Le problème d'eau du Tiers-Monde

SINGAPOUR – Lors de sa dernière réunion à Davos, le Forum Economique Mondial a publié son neuvième Rapport mondial sur les risques, qui s'appuie sur un sondage auprès de plus de 700 chefs d'entreprise, responsables gouvernementaux et membres d'organisations à but non lucratif, afin d'identifier les risques les plus graves dans le monde pour la prochaine décennie. Fait remarquable, quatre menaces sur les dix énumérées cette année concernent l'eau.

Ces risques comprennent des crises de l'eau résultant de la sécheresse et des inondations, de la dégradation de la qualité de l'eau et d'une mauvaise gestion de l'eau. De l'incapacité à atténuer et à s'adapter au changement climatique. De l'incidence plus forte d'événements météorologiques extrêmes. Et enfin des crises alimentaires, entraînées au moins en partie par des pénuries d'eau. Mais le rapport ne parvient pas à souligner la préoccupation la plus urgente à propos de l'eau : s'assurer d'avoir suffisamment d'eau potable. En outre, alors que les organisations internationales reconnaissent le problème, leur approche d'une solution est complètement erronée.

En 2012, l'Organisation des Nations Unies a annoncé que le but des Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement de réduire de moitié le nombre de personnes sans accès durable à l'eau potable avait été atteint plus tôt que prévu, avec seulement 783 millions de personnes sans accès à l'eau potable. Mais le Centre du Tiers-Monde pour la Gestion de l'Eau recense au moins 3 milliards de personnes à travers le monde qui continuent de boire une eau de qualité douteuse. AquaFed, qui représente les sociétés privées d'eau, a estimé ce décompte à 3,4 milliards, soit près de la moitié de la population mondiale. Cela donne à penser que la déclaration de victoire de l'ONU était à tout le moins prématurée.

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