A Crise Alimentar Interna da Índia

SINGAPURA – De acordo com estimativas actuais, a população total da Índia atingirá os 1,45 mil milhões em 2028, igualando a da China, e os 1,7 mil milhões em 2050, o equivalente à população combinada da China e dos Estados Unidos de hoje. Como a Índia já se debate para alimentar a sua população, a sua actual crise alimentar poderá piorar significativamente nas próximas décadas.

De acordo com o Índice Global da Fome (GHI) de 2013, a Índia está em 63º lugar, de entre os 78 países onde existe mais fome, significativamente pior que os vizinhos Sri Lanka (43º), Nepal (49º), Paquistão (57º) e Bangladesh (58º). Apesar da melhoria considerável da Índia durante o último quarto de século – a sua classificação no GHI subiu de 32,6 em 1990 para 21,3 em 2013 – a Organização para a Alimentação e Agricultura das Nações Unidas acredita que 17% dos Indianos ainda estão demasiado subnutridos para terem uma vida produtiva. Com efeito, um quarto das pessoas subnutridas do mundo vive na Índia, mais do que em toda a África Subsaariana.

Mais desesperante, um terço das crianças subnutridas no mundo vive na Índia. Segundo a UNICEF, 47% das crianças Indianas têm défice de peso e 46% das crianças abaixo dos três anos são demasiado pequenas para a sua idade. Na verdade, quase metade de toda a mortalidade infantil pode ser atribuída à subnutrição – uma conjuntura a que o antigo Primeiro-Ministro Manmohan Singh apelidou de “vergonha nacional.”

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