Asia y sus disfuncionales democracias

Este año, Asia ha estado inmersa en una fiebre electoral. Filipinas y Taiwán han elegido nuevos presidentes; India y Malasia han renovado sus parlamentos y cargos de primeros ministros. Septiembre trae dos nuevas elecciones de vital importancia: una elección legislativa en Hong Kong y una elección presidencial en Indonesia. Los votantes de estos países pueden hacer que se intensifique una perturbadora paradoja que ha surgido en la región: mientras más "vigorosa" se vuelve una democracia asiática, más disfuncional resulta ser.

No faltan ejemplos. El intento de los partidos de oposición de destituir mediante el juicio político al Presidente de Corea del Sur, Roh Moo Hyun, con la más débil de las excusas; la imposibilidad del Presidente de Taiwán, Chen Shui-bian, de lograr aprobar iniciativas legislativas en un parlamento controlado por el opositor Kuomintang; el estancamiento del primer periodo de la Presidenta de Filipinas, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, y la obstrucción a las reformas fiscales necesarias para prevenir una debacle financiera al estilo argentino, predicha para principios de su segundo periodo: cada una de estas situaciones es testimonio de la parálisis democrática de Asia.

Si la situación de punto muerto y confusión fuera el único resultado, estos conflictos políticos podrían ser tolerables. Pero el estancamiento crónico ha puesto a varias democracias asiáticas frente a la amenaza del descrédito, la violencia potencial y la perspectiva de un declive económico.

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