Asia después de Obama

NUEVA DELHI – La gira del Presidente de los Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, de diez días por Asia y las consecutivas reuniones de la Cumbre del Asia Oriental, del G-20 y de la Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico han contribuido a centrar la atención en los imperativos de Asia en un momento en que las tensiones entre una China cada vez más ambiciosa y sus vecinos resultan omnipresentes en el panorama geopolítico de la región.

Resulta significativo que Obama limitara su gira a las principales democracias de Asia –la India, Indonesia, el Japón y Corea del Sur– que circundan a China y son fundamentales para afrontar su ascenso. Sin embargo, ha pasado todo el último año cortejando asiduamente al Gobierno de Beijing con la esperanza de hacer de China un socio mundial respecto de cuestiones que van desde el cambio climático hasta la reglamentación financiera, pasando por el comercio. La coletilla relativa a China acuñada por el Vicesecretario de Estado de los EE.UU., James Steinberg, “tranquilidad estratégica", indicaba en realidad la intención de su país de adoptar una actitud más complaciente con las ambiciones de China.

Ahora, cuando su estrategia relativa a China está fracasando, Obama está intentando hacer exactamente lo que intentó su predecesor: alinear a sus socios como medida de seguridad en caso de que la potencia en ascenso de China se deslice hacia la arrogancia. Otros participantes en el gran tablero de juego de la geopolítica asiática están procurando también formular nuevas ecuaciones, mientras aplican simultáneamente estrategias de cerco, equilibrio y acomodación.

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