Spaniens Menschenrechtsdilemma

NEW YORK – Spanische Abgeordnete wollen gesetzliche Einschränkungen erlassen, die einige  Richter des Landes daran hindern würden, die umfassende Befugnis auszureizen, in spanischen Gerichten Menschenrechtsverletzungen strafrechtlich zu verfolgen, die andernorts auf der Welt begangen wurden. In einem aktuellen Fall hat ein spanischer Richter Haftbefehle gegen den chinesischen Ex-Präsidenten Jiang Zemin und den chinesischen Ex-Ministerpräsidenten Li Peng erwirkt, denen Verbrechen zur Last gelegt werden, die in Tibet begangen wurden. Der Fall weist keine erkennbare Verbindung zu Spanien auf.

Die spanischen Abgeordneten haben nicht ganz Unrecht: Zuzulassen, dass die Ermittlungsrichter des Landes überall auf der Welt Ziele auswählen, ohne dass es einen klaren juristischen Zusammenhang mit Spanien gibt, kommt einer Aufforderung gleich, das Verfahren zu politisieren.

Es ist jedoch ebenfalls wichtig, das Grundprinzip aufrechtzuerhalten, das diesen Strafverfolgungen zugrundeliegt: das Konzept der universellen Gerichtsbarkeit. Tatsächlich lassen sich die Ursprünge dieses Gedankens bis in die Antike zurückverfolgen und er spielt eine entscheidende Rolle für den globalen Schutz der Menschenrechte.

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