Le dilemme de l’Espagne en matière de compétence universelle

NEW YORK – Un groupe de députés espagnols cherche aujourd’hui à faire adopter des restrictions qui limiteraient la capacité de certains juges de ce pays à faire usage de ce qui semble être un droit sans limite de poursuivre devant les Cours de justice espagnoles des violations des droits humains commises ailleurs dans le monde. Récemment, l’Audience nationale espagnole a lancé un mandat d’arrêt international contre l’ex-président chinois Jiang Zemin et l’ex-Premier ministre chinois Li Peng, pour crimes présumés contre l’humanité au Tibet. Aucun lien discernable avec l’Espagne n’existe dans cette affaire.

Ces députés espagnols se fondent sur des arguments recevables : permettre aux juges d’instruction de cibler des criminels où que ce soit dans le monde, sans qu’un lien juridique clair avec l’Espagne puisse être établi, invite à politiser le processus.

Il est toutefois important de préserver le concept qui sous-tend ces poursuites judiciaires : le principe de compétence universelle, qui a des origines antiques et qui joue un rôle fondamental dans la protection mondiale des droits humains.

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