Монетарный беспорядок в Аргентине

КЭМБРИДЖ: И снова прилагаются усилия, чтобы сделать мир безопасным для банковских инвестиций. МВФ (IMF) готовит «вывод из кризиса», оцениваемый в 20 миллионов долларов, чтобы предохранить Аргентину от дефолта по займам у иностранных кредиторов. Как обычно, инвесторы получат деньги, то время как Аргентина еще глубже погрязнет в кризис.

История началась несколько десятилетий назад. С 1940-х по начало 1990-х в управлении Аргентиной были сделаны серьезные ошибки. Военные и гражданские правительства чередовали друг друга в безответственной денежной и фискальной политике, а также в торговом протекционизме, который отрезал Аргентину от мирового рынка. Это сочетание привело к образованию огромного внешнего долга, низкому уровню экспорта по отношению к размеру экономики, а также высокому уровню инфляции.

В начале 1990-х, президент Карлос Менем (Carlos Menem) и Министр финансов Доминго Кавайо (Domingo Cavallo) предприняли ряд решительных мер, сокращающих дефицит бюджета и прекращающих протекционизм. Однако, чтобы побороть инфляцию, они прибегли к хитрости. Они зафиксировали валютный курс одного песо по доллару США и пообещали, что этот валютный курс никогда не изменится. Данная система известна под названием установление «валютного потолка» (“currency board” arrangement).

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