Jon Krause

La victoria de los buitres

NUEVA YORK – Una reciente decisión de un tribunal de apelaciones estadounidense amenaza con cambiar drásticamente a los mercados mundiales de deuda soberana. Puede incluso conducir a que ya no se considere a EE. UU. como un buen lugar para la emisión de deuda soberana. Como mínimo, torna inviables todas las reestructuraciones de deuda según los contratos estándar. En el proceso se anuló un principio básico del capitalismo moderno: cuando los deudores no pueden pagar a los acreedores, es necesario volver a empezar.

El problema comenzó hace una docena de años, cuando Argentina no tuvo otra opción que devaluar su moneda e incurrir en la cesación de pagos de su deuda. Bajo el gobierno existente, el país se había embarcado en una rápida espiral descendente, del tipo ahora familiar en Grecia y otros sitios de Europa. El desempleo se había disparado y la austeridad, en vez de recuperar el equilibrio fiscal, simplemente exacerbó la caída económica.

La devaluación y la reestructuración de la deuda funcionaron. En los años siguientes, hasta la erupción de la crisis financiera mundial en 2008, el crecimiento del PBI anual argentino fue del 8 %, uno de los más rápidos en el mundo.

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