Maurico Macri, President of Argentina [E]TelamXinhua via ZUMA Wire

Der wirtschaftliche Urknall Argentiniens

FRANKFURT – Letzte Woche hat die Regierung des gerade gewählten neuen argentinischen Präsidenten Mauricio Macri einen mutigen Plan veröffentlicht, um der angeschlagenen und durch hohe Inflation geplagten Wirtschaft zu neuem Leben zu verhelfen. Angesichts der erheblichen Krise sollte man die Bedeutung dieses Schrittes nicht unterschätzen – nicht nur für Argentinien, sondern auch für andere Länder, deren Politiker nach Hinweisen Ausschau halten, wie sie ihre eigenen wirtschaftlichen Probleme lösen können.

Jahrzehnte falscher Wirtschaftspolitik haben zu einer erheblichen Schwäche der argentinischen Wirtschaft geführt. Frühere Regierungen haben versucht, durch die Einführung ineffizienter Kontrollen schwierige politische Entscheidungen zu vermeiden und grundlegende Probleme zu verschleiern. Dies hat zu einer krassen Fehlverteilung von Ressourcen geführt und die Fähigkeit Argentiniens unterminiert, genug Deviseneinkünfte zur Deckung der Importrechnungen zu erzielen, was eine Warenknappheit zur Folge hatte. Durch den aktuellen Verfall der Rohstoffpreise wurde die Lage noch verschärft. Das noch verbleibende Wachstumspotenzial wurde abgewürgt, die Inflation angeheizt, die Armut verschlimmert, die wirtschaftliche Unsicherheit verstärkt und das Finanzsystem destabilisiert.

Theoretisch haben Regierungen in solch einer Lage fünf grundlegende Möglichkeiten, die Krise zu bewältigen und eine Steigerung von Wachstum und Beschäftigung zu erreichen:

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