Argentinien: Gefangen in der Vergangenheit

Argentinien ist ein Gefangener seiner Vergangenheit. Die politischen und wirtschaftlichen Reformen des vergangenen Jahrzehnts sollten das Land aus seiner chronischen Wirtschaftskrise führen. Im April 1991 veranlasste Wirtschaftsminister Domingo Cavallo die Bindung des argentinischen Peso an den US-Dollar im Verhältnis 1:1 und gab damit den Anstoß für radikale Reformen. Zehn Jahre später jedoch versucht eben dieser Señor Cavallo, die Rezession und die staatliche Zahlungsunfähigkeit abzuwenden.

Dieser argentinische Krisenzyklus stimmt ratlos. In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden die verstaatlichte Industrie und das Sozialversicherungssystem privatisiert und der internationale Handel liberalisiert. Das chronische Haushaltsdefizit wurde unter Kontrolle gebracht, die Infrastruktur ausgebaut und der Bankensektor gestärkt..

Diese Maßnahmen zusammen mit dem Währungsstabilitätsprogramm führten in Argentinien zu einem rapiden wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung, der bis 1995 anhielt, da ausländische Investoren Geld ins Land brachten. In diesem Jahr kam es, bedingt durch die Finanzkrise in Mexiko, zu einem wirtschaftlichen Rückschlag. Bis 1998 gab es starke Wachstumseinbrüche. Seither befindet sich die Wirtschaft in einer anhaltenden Rezession, und die Regierung kämpft mit der Schuldentilgung im öffentlichen Haushalt. Die Angst vor Zahlungsunfähigkeit ist allgegenwärtig.

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