L'Argentine en retard d'une guerre

L'Argentine est en retard d'une guerre. Les réformes politiques et économiques de ces dix dernières années étaient supposées sortir le pays de sa situation de crise économique chronique. En avril 1991, le ministre de l'économie, Domingo Cavallo, arrima le peso argentin au dollar américain au taux fixe de un pour un, lançant ainsi une période de réformes économiques. Mais dix ans plus tard, le même Signor Cavallo cherche toujours à déjouer la récession et à éviter que le gouvernement se trouve en cessation de payement.

Le cycle de crises que traverse l'Argentine est toujours source d’étonnement. Au cours des dix dernières années, les industries et la sécurité sociale ont été privatisées, les infrastructures, améliorées, le commerce international a été libéralisé, le déficit chronique du budget, ramené sous contrôle, et le secteur bancaire a été renforcé.

Ces facteurs, ajoutés à la stabilisation de la monnaie, ont permis un boom économique qui s'est prolongé jusqu'en 1995 grâce à la manne financière apportée par les investisseurs étrangers. Cette année là, l'économie a subi le contrecoup de la crise économique mexicaine. La croissance a cependant repris vigoureusement jusqu'en 1998. Depuis lors, l'économie a été confrontée à une récession prolongée et le gouvernement peine à refinancer la dette publique. Nombreux sont ceux qui craignent qu'il ne se retrouve en situation de cessation de payement.

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