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LONDON – Das jüngste Gutachten des Internationalen Gerichtshofs hinsichtlich der einseitigen Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Kosovo wird weithin als grünes Licht für separatistische Bewegungen zur Erlangung der Eigenstaatlichkeit interpretiert. Der Präsident des Kosovo formuliert es so: „Letztlich werden mit dieser Entscheidung mögliche Zweifel jener Länder ausgeräumt, die die Republik Kosovo noch immer nicht anerkennen.”

Bei dieser Auslegung handelt es sich allerdings um Wunschdenken der Abspaltungs-Befürworter. Das nicht verbindliche Rechtsgutachten des Gerichtshofs geht nämlich einer eng begrenzten Frage der UN-Hauptversammlung nach: ob die Erklärung der Unabhängigkeit nach internationalem Recht legal ist.  Die Richter kamen korrekterweise zu der Erkenntnis, dass es im internationalen Recht keine Bestimmung gibt,  die es einer Gruppe verbieten würde, ihre Absicht oder den Wunsch nach Staatenbildung zu bekunden. Allerdings äußern sich die Richter nicht zu den Bedingungen, unter denen diese Absicht in die Realität umzusetzen sei – also zum Akt der Abspaltung selbst. 

Tatsächlich war das Gericht bestrebt, keine Zweifel aufkommen zu lassen: „Die Fragestellung ist begrenzt und spezifisch…es steht nicht zur Debatte, ob der Kosovo Eigenstaatlichkeit erreicht hat.“ Die Rechtsmeinung der Richter steht im Gegensatz zu jener des Obersten Gerichtshofs von Kanada, der über Quebecs Recht einer einseitigen Abspaltung zu entscheiden hatte. In diesem Fall ging die Frage weit über eine Unabhängigkeitserklärung hinaus. Sie lautete, ob und unter welchen Umständen Quebec das Recht hätte, sich von Kanada – nach geltender Landesverfassung oder internationalem Recht - loszusagen.  

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