Le multinazionali statunitensi stanno abbandonando l’America?

BERKELEY – In una recente conferenza tenutasi a Washington DC, l’ex Segretario del Tesoro Larry Summers ha detto che i policy maker americani dovrebbero focalizzarsi sulle attività produttive che hanno luogo negli Stati Uniti e danno lavoro agli americani, e non sulle società legalmente registrate negli Usa ma che delocalizzano altrove l’attività produttiva. Ha citato una ricerca condotta dall’ex Segretario del Lavoro Robert Reich, il quale oltre vent’anni fa aveva messo in guardia sul fatto che spostando l’occupazione e la produzione all’estero, gli interessi delle multinazionali americane sarebbero stati divergenti dagli interessi economici del Paese.

È facile convenire con Summers e Reich che la politica economica nazionale debba concentrarsi sulla competitività statunitense e non sul benessere di società particolari. Ma la netta distinzione tra interessi economici del Paese e interessi delle multinazionali americane è fuorviante.

Nel 2009, l’ultimo anno per cui sono disponibili dati esaurienti, si contavano appena 2.226 multinazionali americane su 30 milioni di imprese operanti negli Usa. Le multinazionali americane tendono ad essere ampie, ad intensità di capitale e di scambi commerciali, svolgono un’intensa attività di ricerca e sono responsabili di una sostanziosa e sproporzionata fetta di attività economica americana.

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