沙特人到底算不算狂热份子?

恐怖袭击不仅让很多人对沙特政府的生存前景产生了疑虑,甚至催生了这样的观点:沙特王国本身是否运转不良,成了一个破坏性的国家。看起来,暴力狂热的逆流似乎在沙特社会中蔓延,而这股逆流的根源就是极端正统的宗教观念。

2001年9月11日袭击美国的19名劫机者中,居然有15名来自沙特。这一事实使长久以来就存在的一种看法渐趋明朗:即沙特是独裁主义和极端观点的大本营。某种程度上,上述观点并没有说错,但用来形容广大的沙特公众却并不合适。恰恰相反,如果认为伊斯兰狂热主义界定了沙特宗教观念的全部内涵,那就犯下了极为严重的错误。

2001到2003年间,我曾作为调研小组的一员,广泛调查了沙特阿拉伯、埃及、伊朗和约旦等国的价值观。调查的结果显示:沙特人的观点与人们的传统看法间有着很大的不同。与其它中东国家的答卷者相比,沙特人总体上没那么信奉宗教,他们对民主和包办婚姻的看法也显示出一股涌动的暗流。

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