Les jours du dollar sont-ils comptés ?

Une année auparavant, le dollar dominait le monde comme un colosse. Il est désormais moins orgueilleux et l'euro triomphe. Le dollar en tant que réserve et monnaie internationale incontestées est-il destiné à disparaître ? Ou le " triomphalisme de l'euro " est-il prématuré ?

Cette question préoccupe non seulement les spéculateurs qui suivent le déclin du dollar, mais également les hommes d'affaires qui se demandent quelle devise utiliser lorsqu'ils facturent des importations ou des exportations. En effet, le rôle joué par les devises dans le commerce mondial en ce qui concerne la facturation n'est pas assez mis en avant. A l'heure actuelle, le dollar américain domine toujours. La plupart des exportations et des importations américaines sont réalisées en dollars et le dollar est massivement utilisé pour les échanges n'impliquant pas l'Amérique.

Toutefois, depuis 1980, le dollar a perdu du terrain. Les estimations de la Commission européenne indiquent que la part du dollar dans le commerce mondial a chuté de 56 % en 1980 à 52 % en 1995 (dernière année d'établissement des statistiques). La part du Deutsche Mark est restée relativement inchangée entre 1980 et 1995. Le yen reste en arrière, mais possède la croissance relative la plus élevée avec une part du commerce mondial qui a plus que doublé entre 1980 (2 %) et 1995 (presque 5 %).

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