¿Están los bárbaros a las puertas de la UE?

BRUSELAS – La zona del euro afronta una crisis fundamental a cuya resolución no contribuirán precisamente los ataques a los especuladores. El Consejo de Ministros europeo tuvo que prometer centenares de miles de millones de euros para sus países miembros financieramente en peligro, pese a que la economía europea en conjunto no esta en crisis en realidad, Al contrario, la mayoría de las encuestas y los indicadores económicos más fiables señala una fuerte subida y el único país que tiene problemas en verdad muy graves, Grecia, representa sólo el 3 por ciento del PIB de dicha zona.

No obstante, la crisis representa una amenaza casi existencial para la Unión Europea –y ha requerido sumas tan enormes– porque afecta directamente al principio fundamental y subyacente de la gobernación europea: la naturaleza del Estado. El caso de Grecia ha planteado una pregunta simple, pero profunda: ¿se puede permitir que quiebre un Estado miembro de la UE?

Una opinión es la de que el Estado es sacrosanto: la UE debe intervenir y ayudar a cualquier miembro extraviado para que vuelva a estar en condiciones, pero esa opinión da por sentado que todos los Estados miembros comparten los valores económicos subyacentes de la prudencia fiscal y la reforma del mercado. Sólo podrían surgir problemas por sacudidas no previstas, dificultades políticas locales temporales y –se trata del culpable preferido– mercados irracionales.

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