La violencia y la innovación

ABU DHABI – En El tercer hombre, film británico de 1949, uno de los personajes, Harry Lime, señala que durante el reinado de los Borgia en la Italia renacentista, el país “tuvo guerras, terror, asesinatos y derramamiento de sangre. Pero produjo a Miguel Ángel, a Leonardo da Vinci y al Renacimiento”. En cambio, agrega, tras 500 años de paz y democracia, Suiza apenas inventó el reloj cucú.

Claro que sería exagerado concluir que el conflicto es la única fuente posible de innovación y creatividad (de hecho, Suiza es líder mundial en innovación), pero el comentario de Lime encierra una verdad importante. Se piensa en general que la paz, el orden y la estabilidad política son condiciones indispensables para la inventiva, el espíritu emprendedor y el desarrollo económico, pero esta regla tiene muchas excepciones (especialmente, en lo referido a la creatividad y la innovación).

Es común que Estados Unidos aparezca siempre entre los diez países más innovadores del mundo en los estudios referidos al tema (por ejemplo, en el Índice Mundial de Innovación de la Escuela de Negocios INSEAD). Pero en el Índice Mundial de la Paz, figura en 88.° lugar en una lista de 153 países. Por su parte, el Reino Unido y los Países Bajos están quinto y sexto, respectivamente, en el Índice de Innovación, pero 28.° y 29.° en el Índice de la Paz. En el otro extremo, Bután es una de las 20 naciones más pacíficas del mundo, pero en los índices de innovación ni siquiera aparece.

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