暴力与创新

阿布扎比—在1949年的英国电影《第三个人》(The Third Man)中,哈里·莱姆(Harry Lime)观察到,文艺复兴时期博尔吉亚家族统治意大利时,意大利“有战争、恐怖、谋杀和流血。但(它)产生了米开朗基罗、达芬奇和文艺复兴。”他还说,相反,享受了500年民主和和平的瑞士除了布谷鸟钟什么都没有。

由此暗示创新和创造力只能产生于冲突之中实属极端——事实上,瑞士乃世界创新领袖之一——但莱姆仍可以说一针见血。尽管和平、秩序和政治稳定被广泛认为是发明、企业家精神和经济发展的重要先决条件,但这一规则有着大量例外——特别是在创造力和创新方面。

美国一直身居欧洲工商管理学院(INSEAD)全球创新指数世界十强之列。但是,在全球和平指数中,它只名列88(共有153个国家)。类似地,英国和荷兰在创新指数中分别位居第五和第六,但在和平指数中只排在第28和第29。反之,不丹是最和平的20个国家之一,但在创新指数中根本进不了榜。

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