人类变得更好了吗?

发自墨尔本——看着每天充斥着战争,恐怖主义以及残暴政府滥权行为的报纸头条,听着那些宗教领袖们哀叹公共和私人生活的行为标准正不断下滑,这很容易给人以一种我们正生活在道德崩溃时代的印象。但笔者却觉得有理由对我们的未来保持乐观。

30年前笔者曾写过一本名为《不断扩大的圈》的书,书中写道,从历史角度看,被我们纳入道德考量的事物圈子一直在扩大,先是从部落到国家,接着是种族或是族群,再到全人类,最后延伸到非人类生物。而这肯定是种道德上的进步。

我们或许会认为进化导致那些只为自身利益考虑的个体——以及他们的亲族——才能被筛选留存下来,因为携带这类特性的基因更可能开枝散叶。但笔者当时则在书中指出,理性的发展将使我们走上一条不同的道路。

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