外国投资者还受人欢迎吗?

过去20年来,世界直接外资的流量发生了迅猛的增长,从20世纪80年代的400亿美元一路飙升到了去年的9000亿美元。直接外资的累计总额已经接近了10万亿美元,使之成为向国外市场输送商品和服务的最重要的方式:国外分支机构的销售额合计约为19万亿美元,而与此相对应的全世界出口总额却只有11万亿美元。与此同时,直接外资形式在几乎所有国家实现自由化已经成为公司内部贸易的推动力量¾直接外资是新兴的统一国际制造体系赖以生存的血液,已经占据了世界贸易三分之一的份额。但是,这样的黄金时代是否已经结束了呢?

直接外资可以带来一系列的好处,但也能让我们付出代价。20世纪70年代,直接投资国外的跨国公司(TNC’s)刚刚引起人们注意的时候,很多政府都认为直接外资的代价超过了它的收益,因此采取了控制外资的政策。20世纪80年代,权衡直接外资利弊的天平在发达国家的引导下开始发生倾斜。从前一直被认为是问题制造者的直接外资,慢慢开始成了经济增长和社会发展的推动力量。

这种变化最好的例证莫过于国家的直接外资政策。按照联合国贸易和发展会议的报告,1991到2004年间发生的共计2,156项变革之中,93%都符合为跨国公司创造更有利的投资环境的大方向。但现在,我们却面临着天平再次倾斜的真实的危险,这可能导致自由化的过程发生回潮。

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