¿Los bancos malos son una buena idea?

ESTOCOLMO – La idea de un "banco malo" parece volverse más popular día a día en los países donde los activos tóxicos paralizaron el préstamo. La depuración de la banca sueca a principios de los años 1990 suele mencionarse como un ejemplo de lo exitosa que puede ser esta idea. Pero las lecciones que suelen extraerse de la experiencia sueca se basan en malas interpretaciones de lo que efectivamente hicimos, y de cómo funcionaba nuestro sistema.

La iniciativa de establecer un "banco malo" en Suecia no fue tomada por políticos, sino por la gerencia del Nordbanken. Tras años de mala administración y de una práctica de préstamo imprudente, el banco fue la primera gran víctima de la caída del mercado de propiedades comerciales en 1990.

El Nordbanken había pasado completamente a manos del estado y se nombró un nuevo cuadro gerencial para volver a poner al banco en el sendero de la viabilidad. Pero pronto quedó demostrado que los gerentes tenían poco tiempo para dedicar al negocio bancario medular del Nordbanken, porque tenían que concentrarse de manera desproporcionada en manejar la enorme variedad de activos. Y cada trimestre generaba nuevas depreciaciones que arruinaban los esfuerzos por reconstruir la reputación del banco y la moral de sus empleados.

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