Wedding in Arab country

La solitaria muchedumbre árabe

PARÍS – En La hybris del punto cero, el filósofo colombiano Santiago Castro-Gómez describe la declaración de René Descartes de 1637 "Pienso, luego existo" como el momento en que los europeos blancos se erigieron por encima de Dios como los únicos árbitros del conocimiento y la verdad. Con este punto de inflexión, comenzaron a pensarse a sí mismos como observadores cuyos métodos científicos, valores morales y ética hacen caso omiso de los de otras culturas.

Los "puntos cero" culturales son importantes porque sirven como una línea divisoria -una clara demarcación de "antes" y "después" que tiene implicancias fundamentales para el desarrollo de la vida privada y pública-. De modo que vale la pena considerar las implicancias del concepto de Castro-Gómez para el mundo árabe. Por cierto, se podría decir que gran parte de los problemas de la región se pueden atribuir a la falta de un "punto cero" endémico sobre el que pudiera basarse con firmeza una cultura moderna.

En La muchedumbre solitaria, el sociólogo norteamericano David Riesman identificó tres tipos culturales amplios: las culturas dirigidas hacia las tradiciones que miran a los rituales, la moral y los valores en busca de guía; las culturas introspectivas, en las que la gente se comporta de acuerdo a valores autoalimentados; y las culturas dirigidas hacia los demás que reaccionan predominantemente frente a normas externas e influencias de pares. El marco teórico de Riesman tiene una particular resonancia en el mundo árabe hoy, donde las crecientes tasas de alfabetización y los rápidos progresos en materia de tecnología de las comunicaciones han provocado un torbellino de narrativas culturales en conflicto. Así las cosas, sus tres tipos culturales compiten por definir el futuro de la región.

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