Wedding in Arab country

Une foule solitaire arabe

PARIS – Dans son livre « L’orgueil démesuré du point zéro », le philosophe colombien Santiago Castro-Gomez décrit la déclaration de René Descartes de 1637, « Je pense, donc je suis », comme le moment où l’homme blanc européen s’est placé au-dessus de Dieu comme seul arbitre de la connaissance et de la vérité. A partir de ce point tournant, il a commencé à se percevoir comme un observateur dont les méthodes scientifiques, la moralité et l’éthique primaient sur celles d’autres cultures.

Les « points zéro » culturels sont importants en ce sens qu’ils servent de ligne de démarcation, qu’ils opèrent une distinction claire entre « l’avant » et « l’après », une séparation qui comporte des implications fondamentales pour le développement de la vie privée et de la vie publique. Il est donc instructif de considérer l’incidence du concept de Castro-Gomez sur le monde arabe. En fait, on pourrait avancer qu’une grande partie des troubles de la région est due à l’absence d’un « point zéro » autochtone sur lequel une culture moderne pourrait s’appuyer solidement.

Dans « La foule solitaire », le sociologue américain David Riesman identifie trois types culturels généraux : les cultures basées sur la tradition qui prennent pour guide des mœurs, des valeurs et des rituels hérités ; les cultures intro-dirigées au sein desquelles les individus se comportent en fonction de valeurs qu’ils ont eux-mêmes définies ; et les cultures extro-dirigées qui réagissent de manière prédominante à des normes extérieures et à l’influence des pairs. Ces cadres définis par Riesman ont une résonance particulière dans le monde arabe actuel, où le taux croissant d’alphabétisation et la progression rapide des technologies de la communication ont créé un vortex de logiques culturelles concurrentes et où les trois types de cultures s’affrontent pour définir l’avenir de la région.

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