Wedding in Arab country

孤独的阿拉伯人群

巴黎—哥伦比亚哲学家圣地亚哥·卡斯特罗-戈麦兹(Santiago Castro-Gomez)在《零点的狂妄》(The Hubris of the Zero Point)中笛卡尔1637年所提出的“我思故我在”的口号描述为欧洲白人让自己凌驾于上帝之上、作为知识和真理的唯一仲裁者的时刻。在这个转折点之后,他们开始自视为观察者,他们的科学方法、道德和伦理超然于其他文化之上。

文化的“零点”是重要的,因为它们构成了一条分割线——泾渭分明的“之前”和“之后”——给私人和公共生活的发展造成了根本性影响。因此,考察卡斯特罗-戈麦兹的概念对阿拉伯世界的影响很具有说明性。事实上,可以说,该地区的许多麻烦都要归因于缺少本土的“零点”,导致现代文化无法找到稳固的根基。

美国社会学家大卫·李斯曼(David Riesman)在《孤独的大众》(The Lonely Crowd)中提出了三个广义的文化类型:传统指引型文化从传承的礼仪、道德和价值观中寻求指引;内心指引型文化让人们根据自我培养的价值观行动;他者指引型文化主要靠对外部规范和同侪影响的反应。李斯曼的框架在当今阿拉伯世界能够找到尤其多的共鸣,在当今阿拉伯世界,日益升高的识字率和通讯技术的迅速进步导致了互相竞争的文化叙事的乱战,这三类文化争相决定该地区的未来。

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