arab spring anniversary Chedly Ben Ibrahim/Corbis/Getty Images

Le Printemps arabe et l'hiver de l'Occident

BEYROUTH – On peut trouver de nombreux parallèles frappants entre le « Printemps arabe » qui a débuté en 2010, le référendum du Brexit au Royaume-Uni, l'élection du Président américain Donald Trump et la résurgence de l'extrême-droite en Europe. Dans chaque cas, un ordre ancien a été renversé et des partis progressistes ont été trop faibles pour contrer l'émergence de régimes autoritaires et de formes de gouvernance xénophobes.

Le mécontentement croissant à l'égard du statu quo qui a porté les soulèvements arabes de 2010-2011 avait de multiples causes et l'opposition a pris des formes aussi bien progressives que conservatrices. Les membres de la classe moyenne n'ont pas apprécié de perdre leur dignité au profit d'une élite jugée irresponsable. Les jeunes ont contesté un avenir qui leur semblait particulièrement sombre par rapport aux attentes de la génération de leurs parents. Et les islamistes ont ravivé leur opposition morale face à la perte des valeurs éthiques dans la société.

Voilà tous les thèmes récurrents dans les débats qui animent l'Occident, avec sa population croissante des blancs mécontents, de travailleurs déplacés et de jeunes frustrés. Au fil du temps, alors que le libéralisme économique a éliminé les principes de longue date d'égalité et de solidarité sociale, de vastes disparités de richesses sont apparus, qui ont corrompu le régime politique de nombreux pays occidentaux.

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