Dog California Drought Jeremy Woodhouse/Getty Images

水都去哪儿了?

马尼拉——我们生活在一个炎热的星球上。农民在干旱的牧场上耕作,决策者为空空如也的水库、干枯的河流和焦渴的城市而心急火燎。而这还仅仅是触及了世界水问题的表面。起着世界蓄水箱作用的地下蓄水层同样正在干涸。如果这种情况继续下去,特别是对水资源紧缺和经济发展迅速的亚洲国家来说,可能造成可怕的后果。

地下蓄水层其实是深层地下水库,储存在可渗透的岩石、土壤和沙砾当中。它们所含的水量是地球表面溪流、湖泊、河流和湿地所含水量的约100倍之多。如果你生活在中非、南美或欧洲某些区域,你脚下几百英尺深的地方可能就有地下蓄水层。

地表水资源,包括脱盐海水和回收废水,弥补不了水资源供应和需求之间的全球差额——预计到2030年水资源供应和需求之间将相差40%之多。因此地下蓄水层越来越多地被用于补充农业灌溉、发电和经济快速增长的城市地区的日常用水(亚洲城市人口每天增长约120,000人)。

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