La paradoja asiática

SEÚL – Visto que los 21 miembros del Foro de Cooperación Económica Asía-Pacífico, APEC representan algo así como el 54% del PIB global, mientras que su participación respecto del comercio mundial es de 44%, la agenda de la cumbre de la APEC  de este mes sin duda atraerá gran interés en el mundo. No obstante, la única cuestión que parece interesarle al público es si el presidente chino, Xi Jiping, y el primer ministro japonés, Shinzo Abe, se reunirán en privado y, de ser el caso, si se llevará a cabo una discusión sustantiva para reducir las tensiones bilaterales.

Desde luego, esto no deja de ser razonable, debido a la importancia de los dos países para determinar el futuro de Asia oriental. En efecto, la incertidumbre sobre si los dos líderes clave de APEC siquiera se dirigirán la palabra pone de relieve la sombría realidad de las relaciones internacionales asiáticas actuales. Una paradoja está frustrando el supuesto “siglo asiático”: la profunda interdependencia económica no ha servido en absoluto para reducir la desconfianza estratégica.

Dado el reciente deterioro de las relaciones sino-japonesas – que se aceleró en 2012, cuando Japón compró las islas Senkaku (que están en disputa y en chino se llaman islas Diaoyu) a su propietario para impedir que quedaran bajo el control de nacionalistas japoneses – el simple hecho de que Abe asista a la cumbre es un paso muy importante. Una reunión entre Abe y Xi – la primera desde que ambos llegaron al poder – daría bases concretas para la esperanza.

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