Antibiotics given for free in Florida Joe Raedle/Getty Images

Антибиотики которые работают

МЕХИКО – С момента открытия пенициллина в 1928 году и до его введения в последнюю из основных групп антибиотиков в 1960-е годы, человеческий потенциал для борьбы с патогенными бактериями был преобразующим. Но, со временем, количество антибиотиков, к которым чувствительны бактерии уменьшалось, а некоторые патогенные организмы стали устойчивыми к большинству или всем существующим лекарствам. В результате, инфекции, которые поддавались лечению, снова становятся смертельными.

Уже, устойчивость к антибиотикам приводит к примерно 700000 смертей в год, с финансовыми затратами, достигающими десятков миллиардов долларов. Поскольку устойчивость к антибиотикам продолжает подрывать нашу способность лечить рак, трансплантировать органы и вставлять протезы, эти цифры будут только расти.

Растущей устойчивости к антибиотикам способствовало множество факторов. Бактерии могут быстро размножаться и мутировать, и они могут создать что-то вроде “генетического Интернета”, который позволяет определенным патогенным бактериям “загрузить” гены устойчивые к антибиотикам. Более того, большинство антибиотиков являются естественными продуктами почвенных бактерий, в которых устойчивость к антибиотикам может появиться естественным путем. Когда антропогенные антибиотики были введены в массовых масштабах, резистентные бактерии стали наиболее распространенными.

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