El antisemitismo enjuiciado

Cuando la Suprema Corte de Brasil dio su veredicto en el caso de Sigfried Ellwanger -editor, autor y conocido simpatizante nazi-entró al peligroso terreno donde se cruzan la libre expresión y los esfuerzos para detener el racismo. Durante años, Ellwanger publicó libros antisemitas como Los Protocolos de los Sabios de Zion, así como escritos que niegan el holocausto, como Holocausto judío o alemán: tras la mentira del siglo, escrito por él mismo. Por una votación de ocho a tres, la Corte ratificó su condena bajo el cargo de racismo.

Por supuesto, la enormidad del holocausto debería haber eliminado el antisemitismo para siempre. Vergonzosamente no fue así. En muchos lugares sigue existiendo odio a los judíos. En otros -incluyendo Europa y los Estados Unidos-el antisemitismo sobrevive entre grupos marginales neonazis y fanáticos como Ellwanger, pero también, de manera más extendida, en otras formas de discriminación menos abiertas.

Pero castigar penalmente a alguien por ser antisemita y promotor del racismo plantea problemas difíciles que se encaran de formas distintas en distintos países. Ciertamente, todos los países ponen límites a la libertad de expresión. Como sostuvo Oliver Wendell Holmes en una célebre decisión de la Suprema Corte de los EU en 1919: "Ni siquiera la protección más rigurosa de la libre expresión podría defender a una persona que gritara "fuego" falsamente en un teatro lleno y provocara el pánico".

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