Der Antisemitismus auf der Anklagebank

Mit dem Urteil gegen den Autor, Herausgeber und berüchtigten Nazi-Sympathisanten Siegfried Ellwanger begab sich der Oberste Gerichtshof Brasiliens auf jenes gefährliche Terrain, wo Redefreiheit und Bestrebungen zur Eindämmung des Rassismus aufeinanderprallen. Über viele Jahre betätigte sich Ellwanger als Herausgeber antisemitische Bücher wie The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Darüber hinaus verfasste er Bücher wie Holocaust: Jüdisch oder Deutsch, in denen der Holocaust geleugnet wird. Mit acht zu drei Stimmen bestätigte der Gerichtshof das Urteil gegen Ellwanger aufgrund der Anklage wegen Rassismus.

Selbstverständlich hätte die Monstrosität des Holocaust den Antisemitismus für alle Zeiten ausrotten müssen. Beschämenderweise war das nicht der Fall. Vielerorts erstarkt der Hass gegen die Juden. In anderen Teilen der Welt - wie auch in Europa und den USA - hält sich Antisemitismus unter Randgruppen wie Neonazis und Renegaten wie Ellwanger. Weiter verbreitet existiert er auch in der milderen Form des Vorurteils.

Doch die strafrechtliche Verfolgung von Antisemitismus und rassistischer Propaganda wirft auch schwierige Fragen auf, denen man in verschiedenen Ländern auf unterschiedliche Art begegnet. Natürlich gibt es in jedem Land gewisse Einschränkungen der Redefreiheit. In einer berühmt gewordenen Entscheidung des amerikanischen Obersten Gerichtshofes formulierte es Richter Oliver Wendell Holmes folgendermaßen: „Nicht einmal die strengsten Bestimmungen zum Schutz der Redefreiheit würden jemanden schützen, der in einem voll besetzten Theater grundlos ‚Feuer' schreit und dadurch Panik auslöst."

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