L'anti-sémitisme à l'essai

Lorsque la Cour Suprême du Brésil a rendu son verdict dans l'affaire Sigfried Ellwanger, éditeur, auteur et célèbre sympathisant nazi, elle est entrée sur un terrain périlleux sur lequel se rencontrent la liberté d'expression et les efforts visant à endiguer le racisme. Pendant des années, Ellwanger a publié des livres antisémites, tels que The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, ainsi que des livres niant l'existence de l'Holocauste, comme son propre ouvrage Jewish or German Holocaust: Behind the Lie of the Century. Par huit voix contre trois, la Cour a condamné Ellwanger pour racisme.

Bien entendu, l'énormité de l'Holocauste aurait dû éradiquer l'antisémitisme à jamais. Honteusement, cela ne fut pas le cas. Dans de nombreux pays, la haine des Juifs se développe. Partout ailleurs, y compris en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, l'antisémitisme survit parmi une frange de néo-nazis et de renégats comme Ellwanger, mais également, et à une plus grande ampleur, sous des formes plus modérées de préjudice.

Mais punir criminellement un individu pour être un propagandiste antisémite et raciste soulève des problèmes difficiles que différents pays abordent selon différentes méthodes. Il est certain que chaque pays impose des limites sur l'expression. Comme l'a parfaitement exprimé Oliver Wendell Holmes lors d'une décision prise par la Cour Suprême des Etats-Unis en 1919, " même la protection la plus draconienne de la liberté d'expression n'empêcherait pas un homme de crier à tort " Au feu " dans un théâtre bondé et de semer la panique ".

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