Monsanto genetically m odified corn Brent Stirton/Getty Images

Perjanjian Benih yang Anti Ilmu Pengetahuan

STANFORD – Pada bulan September, Amerika Serikat meratifikasi Perjanjian International Sumber Daya Genetik Tanaman Pangan dan Pertanian, atau lebih dikenal dengan Perjanjian Benih Internasional. Seperti halnya banyak perjanjian internasional yang dibuat dibawah naungan PBB, perjanjian ini mempunyai banyak kekurangan. Lebih tepatnya, perjanjian ini adalah sebuah langkah anti teknologi yang diplomatis.    

Memang betul bahwa perjanjian ini, yang mulai berlaku pada tahun 2004, berawal dari sebuah niat yang mulia. Namun niat mulia tersebut kemudian dituangkan dalam bentuk perjanjian yang malah menjadi kendala hukum yang sangat mengekang pertukaran sumber daya genetik (terutama benih) antar negara. Perjanjian ini memiliki tujuan yang tidak mungkin tercapai, yaitu: “pelestarian dan penggunaan berkelanjutan dari seluruh sumber daya genetik tanaman pangan dan pertanian serta pembagian yang adil dan merata dari penggunaan sumber daya tersebut, selaras dengan Perjanjian Keanekaragaman Hayati, untuk pertanian berkelanjutan dan ketahanan pangan.”  

Prinsip dasar dari Perjanjian Benih adalah sumber daya genetik termasuk dalam hak kedaulatan dari negara-negara anggota. Hal ini bertentangan dengan prinsip yang selama ini dipegang yaitu sumber daya tanaman dan hewan merupakan “warisan bersama umat manusia.” Prinsip perjanjian ini bertentangan dengan landasan bahwa beberapa sumber daya global, yang bermanfaat bagi seluruh umat manusia, tidak boleh digunakan sepihak dan di monopoli oleh individu, negara, perusahaan, atau entitas lain, namun harus dikelola dengan cara yang bermanfaat bagi seluruh umat manusia.   

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