Monsanto genetically m odified corn Brent Stirton/Getty Images

Le Traité sur les semences va contre la science

STANFORD – Les États-Unis ont ratifié au mois de septembre le Traité international sur les ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture, plus communément nommé Traité international sur les semences. Comme tant d’accords internationaux conclus sous les auspices des Nations unies, il manque de la plus élémentaire rigueur. De fait, le Traité sur les graines est un fiasco, politiquement correct et technologiquement biaisé.

Entré en vigueur en 2004, le traité procède certes d’intentions louables. Mais il aboutit à un bric-à-brac de promesses plus ou moins fumeuses, traduites en contraintes légales draconiennes sur l’organisation des échanges de ressources génétiques (essentiellement des semences) entre les pays signataires. Son irréalisme apparaît dès la définition de ses objectifs : « La conservation et l’utilisation durables des ressources phytogénétiques pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture, et le partage juste et équitable des avantages découlant de leur utilisation en harmonie avec la Convention sur la diversité biologique, pour une agriculture durable et pour la sécurité alimentaire. »

Le principe directeur du Traité sur les semences est le suivant : les ressources génétiques relèvent du « droit souverain » des États membres (c’est-à-dire des gouvernements). Ce qui équivaut au rejet explicite de l’acception traditionnelle des ressources génétiques animales ou végétales comme « patrimoine commun de l’humanité ». C’est aller à l’encontre de la notion selon laquelle certaines ressources globales, considérées comme utiles à tous, ne devraient pas être exploitées unilatéralement ni monopolisées par des individus, des États, des entreprises, ou d’autres entités, mais gérées d’une façon qui profite à toute l’humanité.

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